GENOMES AND GENETICSVolume 15, No. 01, Month JANUARY, Year 2022, Pages 16 - 33
Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes in asian population
Watip Tangjittipokin, Nipaporn Teerawattanapong, Thanida Tangjarusritaratorn
Abstract Download PDFType 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease. It is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors characterized by the destruction of the pancreatic β-cells and leading to multifactorial diseases for long term effects. It is the second most common chronic disease in children and accounts for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. More than 50 genetic risk regions contributing to the pathogenesis of T1D. The strongest genetics of T1D risk encodes on the classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA) on chromosome 6p21.31 estimated to account for 40-50%. Other genetic loci, non-HLA genes also contribute to T1D risk involving in both immune and non-immune genes. More information is needed to create predictive models for non-European populations. Comparative studies among different populations are needed to complete the knowledge base for the genetics of T1D risk to enable the eventual development of screening and intervention strategies applicable to all individuals, tailored to their genetic background. This review summarizes the current immunogenetics to the understanding of the pathogenesis of T1D emphasize on the Asian population.
Type 1 diabetes; Immunogenetics; Pathogenesis; Asia